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Henry Thornton

Henry Thornton


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Henry Thornton, John Thorntoni (1720–1790) ja Lucy Watsoni (1722–1785) noorim poeg, sündis Claphamis 10. märtsil 1760. Tema isa oli väga edukas kaupmees. Pärast lühikest haridust liitus ta pereettevõttega. Aastal 1780 sai temast partner, kuid aastal 1784 liitus ta pangafirmaga Down and Free, millest said peagi Down, Thornton ja Free. Tema biograafi Christopher Tolley sõnul: "Tema juhtimisel ja isalt saadud umbes 40 000 naela suuruse pärandi abil kasvas Thorntoni pank väikesest ettevõttest Londoni üheks suurimaks, millel oli ulatuslik riigivõrk ühendused. "

Septembris 1782 valiti ta Southwarki asukohaks alamkojaks. Ta oli progressiivse poliitilise arvamusega ning pooldas parlamendireformi ja orjakaubanduse kaotamist. Thornton oli halb kõnemees ja rääkis parlamendis harva. Thornton oli oma sugulase William Wilberforce'iga väga lähedane ja sarnaselt temaga pöördus ta evangeelse kristluse poole. Thornton liitus anglikaani kiriku evangeelsete liikmete rühmaga Clapham Set, mille keskmes oli Londoni Claphami kiriku rektor Henry Venn. Selle pöördumise tulemusena hakkas Thornton huvi tundma sotsiaalsete reformide teema vastu. Teiste liikmete hulka kuulusid Wilberforce, Hannah More, Granville Sharp, Zachary Macaulay, James Stephen, Edward James Eliot, Thomas Gisbourne, John Shore ja Charles Grant.

1787. aastal asutasid Thomas Clarkson, William Dillwyn ja Granville Sharp ühingu orjakaubanduse kaotamiseks. Kuigi Sharp ja Clarkson olid mõlemad anglikaanid, olid komitee kaheteistkümnest liikmest üheksa kveekereid. Siia kuulus John Barton (1755–1789); George Harrison (1747-1827); Samuel Hoare juunior (1751-1825); Joseph Hooper (1732–1789); John Lloyd (1750–1811); Joseph Woods (1738–1812); James Phillips (1745-1799) ja Richard Phillips (1756-1836). Kampaaniat toetasid sellised mõjukad tegelased nagu Thornton, Charles Fox, John Wesley, Josiah Wedgwood, James Ramsay ja William Smith. Clarkson määrati sekretäriks, Sharp esimeheks ja Hoare laekuriks.

Thornton mängis alamkojas orjuse vastuseisus juhtivat rolli. Aastal 1787 tuli Granville Sharp välja ideega, et Londoni mustanahalisel kogukonnal tuleks lubada alustada Sierra Leone kolooniat. Riik valiti suures osas maadeavastaja Mungo pargi tõendite ja hiljuti kolm aastat selles piirkonnas veetnud botaaniku Henry Smeathmani julgustava raporti põhjal. Briti valitsus toetas Sharpi plaani ja nõustus andma transpordikuludeks 12 naela aafriklase kohta. Sharp panustas ettevõtmisse rohkem kui 1700 naela. Mitmed orjakaubanduse kaotamise ühingu toetajad investeerisid raha vabadusse kuuluvaks. Sierra Leone ettevõte. Siia kuulusid Henry Thornton, William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson, Samuel Whitbread ja William Smith.

Richard S. Reddie, raamatu autor Kaotamine! Võitlus orjuse kaotamiseks Briti kolooniates (2007) on väitnud: "Mõned halvustajad on pärast seda hukka mõistnud Sierra Leone projekti kui teise nimega kodumaale tagasisaatmist. Seda on peetud kõrgemeelseks, kuid silmakirjalikuks viisiks, kuidas vabastada riik suurenevast mustast elanikkonnast ... Mõned soovisid Suurbritannias Aafriklased lahkuvad, sest kartsid, et rikuvad riigi valgete naiste voorusi, samas kui teised olid väsinud nägemast neid Londoni tänavatel kerjuseks. "

Granville Sharp suutis veenda väikest gruppi Londoni vaeseid reisima Sierra Leonesse. Nagu autor Hugh Thomas Orjakaubandus (1997), on märkinud: "Laev kaardistati, sõjalaine Nautilus saadeti konvoiks ja 8. aprillil lahkusid esimesed 290 vaba mustanahalist meest ja 41 mustanahalist naist 70 valgenaisega, sealhulgas 60 Londonist pärit prostituudiga, Sierra Leone'i kuningliku mereväe kapteni Thomas Boulden Thompsoni juhtimisel. Kohale jõudes ostsid nad maa -ala Sherbo ja Sierra Leone jõgede vahel.

Varsti pärast saabumist kannatas koloonia malaaria puhangu all. Ainuüksi esimese nelja kuuga suri 122 inimest. Üks valgeid asunikke kirjutas Sharpile: "Mul on tõepoolest väga kahju, teatada teile, kallis härra, et ... ma arvan, et kaheteistkümnenda kuu lõpus ei jää meist keegi ... On ükski asi, mis maasse pannakse, ei kasva sellest enam kui jala välja ... Mis on veelgi üllatavam, põliselanikud surevad väga kiiresti; tundub, et siin valitseb üsna suur katk. "

Adam Hochschild on märkinud: "Kuna Granville'i linna varud kahanesid ja põllukultuurid ebaõnnestusid, pöördusid üha enam pettunud asukad kohaliku majanduse pikaajalise alustala, orjakaubanduse poole ... Kolm valget arsti Granville'i linnast sattusid edukas orjahoidla ... Bance'i saarel. " Granville Sharp oli toimuvast teada saades maruvihane ja kirjutas asunikele: „Ma ei oleks võinud arvata, et mehed, kes olid orjapidamise kurjusest hästi teadlikud ja olid ise (või vähemalt paljud neist) selle all kannatanud. orjapidajate ahistav ikke ... peaks muutuma nii alusetult kurjaks, et annaks endale vahendid oma vendade üle samasuguse vastiku rõhumise edendamiseks ja laiendamiseks. "

Sharp keeldus Sierra Leone negatiivseid teateid vastu võtmast. Ta kirjutas, et oli valinud "kõige sobivama koha ... asumiseks kogu Aafrika rannikul". William Wilberforce'i, Thomas Clarksoni ja Samuel Whitbreadi rahalisel toel saatis Sharp teise laevatäie mustvalgeid asunikke ja tarvikuid. Ei läinud kaua aega, kui Sharp sai teateid, et paljud uusasukad olid "piisavalt kurjad, et minna orjakaubanduse teenistusse".

Aastal 1789 lasi rannikut lasknud kuningliku mereväe sõjalaev lasku, mis pani Sierra Leone küla põlema. Kohalik pealik võttis kätte, andes asunikele kolm päeva lahkumiseks ja põletades seejärel Granville'i linna maha. Ülejäänud asunikud päästsid Bance'i saare orjakaupmehed. Sharp oli laastatud, kui avastas, et viimased Aafrikasse saadetud meestest on nüüd ka orjakaubandusega seotud.

Aastal 1791 võttis Sierra Leone kompanii üle Granville Sharpi ebaõnnestunud vabaduse provintsi. Thorntonist sai esimees ja üks tema esimesi tegusid oli Alexander Falconbridge'i vallandamine, kes oli ettevõtte kaubandusagendina katastroof. John Clarkson saadeti nüüd Halovaxisse, Nova Scotiasse, kus oli endiste Ameerika orjade kogukond, kes oli Vabadussõjas võidelnud brittide eest, kaotama asunikke abolitsionistide kolooniasse. Mustade lojalistide juhi Thomas Petersi toel juhtis ta viieteistkümne laevaga laevastiku, milles oli 1196 asunikku, Sierra Leonesse, kuhu nad jõudsid 6. märtsil 1792. Kuigi kuuskümmend viis nova-šotlast surid reisi ajal, nad toetasid jätkuvalt Clarksoni, keda nad nimetasid "oma Mooseseks".

John Clarksonist sai koloonia kuberner, mida nimetati sobivalt Freetowniks. Kuid nagu Hugh Brogan on väitnud: "See oli arusaam Clarksoni ja Nova Scotians'i vahel, mis sai koloonia läbi selle väga raske esimese aasta. Clarksoni teenused olid alguses üldiselt tunnustatud. Kuid tema ja ettevõtte juhtide vahel tekkis osaliselt suuri pingeid religioosne (talle ei meeldinud ettevõtte esimehe Henry Thorntoni nõudlik evangeelsus), osaliselt seetõttu, et peakontori ja kohapealse mehe vahel oli tavapärane pinge, ja ennekõike seetõttu, et Clarkson nõudis Nova seisukohtade ja huvide esitamist. Esiteks šotlased, samas kui direktorid soovisid, et ettevõte näitaks varajast kasumit, et nad saaksid orjakauplejatega edukalt konkureerida ja Aafrikasse kristluse tuua. "

Aastal 1792 ostis Thornton Battersea Rise'i villa Clapham Commonil, mida ta jagas William Wilberforce'iga. Maja raamatukogust sai Claphami komplekti kohtumispaik. 1. märtsil 1796 abiellus Thornton Marianne Sykesega (1765–1815), kes oli Kingston upon Hulli kaupmehe ja evangeeliumi Joseph Sykesi ainus tütar. Neil oli üheksa last. Tema biograaf on väitnud, et: "Abielu oli südamlik; tema peres oli Thornton soojem ja spontaansem, kui ta välismaailmale tavaliselt tundus. Ta hoolitses oma laste hariduse ja usulise kasvatamise eest väga, rõhutades, et nad on kasulikud ja teadlik avalikest asjadest juba varases nooruses. "

Down, Thornton ja Free said Londoni üheks olulisemaks pangaks. Thornton kasutas oma ärilisi oskusi ka Sierra Leone ettevõtte juhtimiseks. Tema biograaf Christopher Tolley on märkinud: "Ettevõtte eesmärk oli anda Aafrikale Euroopa religiooni ja tsivilisatsiooni õnnistused kaubandustegevuse kaudu, mis oleks kasumlik ja vaba orjusest. Thornton oli ettevõtte mõjukam direktor ja jäi esimeheks kogu oma elu, kirjutades peaaegu kõik oma avaldatud aruanded ja administreerides Sierra Leone'i kontoritest koos oma pangaga Birchin Lane'is. "

Hannah More'i lähedane sõber Thornton tegi kaastööd oma brošüüride sarjale „Odavad hoidlaraamatud” (1795–1798), mis käsitles alamklassi poliitilisi küsimusi. Väidetavalt müüdi neid brošüüre aasta jooksul üle 2 miljoni eksemplari. Neid ostsid peamiselt rikkad, et neid vaestele jagada. Nende väljaannete edu sillutas teed religioosse traktaadi seltsi loomiseks. James Stephen on väitnud, et ta "andis ära 2000–9000 naela aastas, kuus seitsmendikku sissetulekust enne abiellumist ja kolmandiku pärast seda".

Aastal 1802 avaldas Thornton Uurimine Suurbritannia paberkrediidi olemuse ja mõju kohta. Raamat andis täieliku ülevaate Inglise rahasüsteemist. See hõlmas üksikasjalikku arutelu selle üle, kuidas Inglise Pank peaks ebastabiilsuse vältimiseks tegutsema. John Stuart Mill kirjeldas raamatut kui "kõige selgemat ingliskeelset selgitust, mis mulle tuttav on, kuidas kaupmeeste kogukonnas krediiti antakse ja võetakse". On väidetud, et Karl Marxi mõjutas Thorntoni looming.

Thornton ühendas jõud Zachary Macaulayga, et käivitada raamat "Kristlik vaatleja" 1802. aastal. Ta andis ajakirjale üle kaheksakümne artikli, mis toetasid Claphami komplekti filosoofiat. Thornton oli ka Briti ja välismaiste piibliseltside ning Kiriku misjoniseltsi laekur. Ta ostis ka kirikuelu, mida sobivatele vaimulikele esitada, ja oli aastaid pühapäevakooli seltsi president.

Orjakaubanduse seadus kaotati 1807. aastal. Varsti pärast seda, 1807. aasta juulis, asutasid orjakaubanduse kaotamise ühingu liikmed Aafrika institutsiooni - organisatsiooni, mis oli pühendunud seaduse täitmise jälgimisele. välisriikide poolt orjakaubanduse keelustamine ning Aafrika "tsivilisatsiooni ja õnne" edendamine. Henry Thorntonist sai laekur ja Gloucesteri hertsog asus presidendi ametikohale. Komisjoni liikmed olid Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce, Henry Brougham, James Stephen, Granville Sharp ja Zachary Macaulay.

Wayne Ackerson, raamatu autor Aafrika institutsioon ja orjusvastane liikumine Suurbritannias (2005) on väitnud: "Aafrika institutsioon oli üheksateistkümnenda sajandi alguses Suurbritannias keskse tähtsusega abolitsionistide ja orjusevastaste rühmituste rühm, mille liikmete hulka kuulusid autoritasud, silmapaistvad advokaadid, parlamendiliikmed ja sellised reformijad nagu William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson ja Zachary Macaulay. Keskendudes lääne tsivilisatsiooni levikule Aafrikasse, välisorjakaubanduse kaotamisele ja orjade elu parandamisele Briti kolooniates, ulatus grupi mõju lisaks valitsuse siseasjadele ka Suurbritannia diplomaatilistesse suhetesse. Institutsioon kandis orjandusevastase reformi tõrvikut kakskümmend aastat ja sillutas teed hilisematele humanitaartöödele Suurbritannias. "

1808. aastal otsustati Sierra Leone kompanii kroonile üle anda, Suurbritannia valitsus võttis vastu Wilberforce'i ettepaneku, et Thomas Perronet Thompson oleks sobiv kuberner. Ta viis ellu ulatuslikke reforme ja esitas tõsiseid süüdistusi koloonia endistele administraatoritele. Stephen Tomkins, raamatu autor William Wilberforce (2007) on väitnud: "Ta (Perronet Thompson) tühistas üksinda õpipoisiõppe ja vabastas orjad. Ta esitas koloniaalametile skandaalseid teateid. Wilberforce ütles talle, et ta on tormakas ja kiirustav, ning ta ja tema kolleegid hääletasid ühehäälselt tema poolt vallandamine. Wilberforce soovitas tal karjääri nimel vaikselt minna. "

Tema biograafi Christopher Tolley sõnul: "Kui tulumaksu kehtestati, maksis ta rohkem kui nõutud, arvates, et maks, kuigi õiglane, ei ole jaotatud õiglaselt .... Ta hindas head sissetulekut, kuid keeldus suure varanduse kogumisest. oma lastele, kutsudes ... järgima enda ja isa eeskuju piiratud kuludest ja suurest liberaalsusest. "

Henry Thornton haigestus 1814. aasta sügisel ja suri 16. jaanuaril 1815 William Wilberforce'i kodus olles tarbimisse. Ta maeti 24. jaanuaril Claphami vana kiriku Thorntoni võlvi.


Henry Thornton sündis 10. märtsil 1760 Surreys Clapham Common'i lõunaküljel asuvas majas. Ta oli filantroobi, pankuri ja kaupmehe John Thorntoni (1729–90) ning tema naise Lucy Watsoni (1722–85) neljast lapsest noorim. John Thornton toetas orjuse kaotamist ja sponsoreeris John Newtonit, kustutajat ja hümni „Amazing Grace“ kirjutajat.

Mõlemad Henry Thorntoni vanaisad olid olnud Hullis kaupmehed ja kuigi John Thornton jätkas pereettevõtet Hullis, kauples ta ka kaupmehena Londonis.

Perel olid ka tugevad pangasidemed. John Thornton ja tema isa (Henry vanaisa) Robert Thornton olid mõlemad Inglismaa Panga direktorid. Hiljem töötas Henry vend Samuel Thornton nii panga direktori kui ka kubernerina.

Henry Thornton sai hariduse Wandsworthi koolides.

Äri- ja pangakarjäär

Henry Thorntoni tööelu algas tema teise nõbu Godfrey Thorntoni firmas, kes kauples Venemaa ja Balti riikidega ning oli hiljem Inglismaa keskpanga president.

Aastal 1780 kolis Thornton tööle koos oma isaga, kes oli ka Venemaa ja Balti riikide kaupmees ning lisaks partner Hulli suhkru- ja seebiettevõtetes.

Aastal 1784, nähes, et tema isa hiljutised ettevõtmised on toonud kaasa märkimisväärseid kahjusid, lahkus Thornton oma vanemate nõuandel pereettevõttest, et liituda tema tööelu domineeriva pangaettevõttega. Kui ta partneriga liitus, sai panga nimi Down, Thornton & amp Free.

Järgmise kolme aastakümne jooksul kasvas Thornton & amp Free üks Londoni suurimaid panku, tegutsedes Londoni agendina üha enamatele väljaspool Londonit asuvatele pankadele, sealhulgas paljudele provintsipankadele ja Royal Bank of Scotlandile.

Umbes 1810. aastal avastas Thornton, et üks tema kaaspartneritest oli lubanud ettevõttel, kellega ta oli seotud, koguda pangaga ebatavaliselt suure deebetjäägi. Peagi selgus Thorntonile, et tõenäoliselt ei maksta raha täielikult tagasi. Kuigi Thornton sekkus korduvalt kahjude piiramiseks, venis see asi mitu aastat ja pank - pärast Thorntoni surma - kaotas lõpuks 70 000 naela, mis on peaaegu võrdne panga aktsiakapitaliga 72 000 naela. Thornton heitis endale ette, et ta on lubanud liiga palju oma tähelepanu pangalt oma parlamentaarsele, usulisele ja kampaaniategevusele suunata. Aastal 1814 peegeldas ta, et tema kui panga vanempartner oli „meie klientide usaldusisik”, „kellele loeti garantiiks, et kõik on turvaline”. Kuigi pank elas selle kriisi üle, kukkus see lõpuks 1825. aastal, kümme aastat pärast Thorntoni surma.

Abolitionist ja evangeelne kristlane

Henry Thornton oli üks „Claphami sekti” asutajatest, seda nime kasutati tagasiulatuvalt evangeelsete kristlaste rühmale, kes kohtusid Battersea Rise’is, Thorntoni kodus Clapham Commonsi lääneküljel. Selle silmapaistvate liikmete hulka kuulusid Thorntoni sõbrad, võitleja Zachary Macaulay, kirjanik Hannah More ja tema lähedane sõber ja nõbu, orjuse kaotanud William Wilberforce.

Claphami sekt algatas arvukalt sotsiaalreformi kampaaniaid ning algatas ja toetas ka mitmesuguseid heategevuslikke ja usulisi eesmärke. Sektil ja eriti Thorntonil oli orjakaubanduse kaotamise kampaanias kesksel kohal ning 1799. aastal esitas Thornton alamkojas (ebaõnnestunud) orjakaubanduse piiramise seaduse eelnõu. Thornton aitas sektil avaldada ka oma ajakirja Kristlik vaatleja, mille jaoks ta kirjutas palju artikleid.

Thornton oli Sierra Leone kompanii asutaja (aastal 1791) ja esimees, mis loodi Aafrikas vabastatud orjade koloonia loomiseks, et näidata, et kasumlik kauplemine ei sõltu orjusest. Ta investeeris ettevõtmisse oma raha ja juhtis ettevõtet tõhusalt Londoni linna Birchin Lane'i kontoritest.

Pärast orjakaubanduse kaotamist 1807. aastal sai Thorntonist Aafrika Instituudi laekur.

Thornton oli tänapäeval Kiriku Misjoniühingu ja Piibliseltsina tegutsevate misjoniasutuste asutaja ja laekur. Ta oli pühapäevakooli seltsi esimene president. Ta oli ka Londoni kirjanduse ja kasulike teadmiste edendamise institutsiooni asutaja ja juht, organisatsioon, mis pakkus teaduslikku haridust, osaliselt neile, kes olid oma usuliste konfessioonide tõttu olemasolevatest ülikoolidest välja arvatud.

Parlamendisaadik ja poliitökonomist

Aastal 1782 taotles Thornton vaidlustada ühe kahest parlamendikohast Hullile, kus tema sõber ja nõbu William Wilberforce olid teist kohta hoidnud alates 1780. aastast. Taandus aga, kui avastas, et ta peaks maksma igale valijale kaks guineat, et saada toetus.

Hiljem samal aastal valiti ta Southwarki parlamendiliikmeks. Ta hoidis seda kohta kuni surmani. Kuigi ta oli sõltumatu, toetas ta üldiselt William Pitti noorema, Henry Addingtoni ja Lord Grenville'i ja Charles James Foxi „kõigi talentide teenistust”. Ta toetas Earl Grey 1797. aasta parlamendireformi kampaaniat ja toetas avaliku elu korruptsioonivastaseid meetmeid.

Thornton istus mitmetes parlamendikomisjonides, mis olid peamiselt seotud rahaasjadega. 1797. aasta valuutakriis, mille ajendiks oli hirm Prantsusmaa sissetungi ees, pani Inglismaa Keskpanga pangatähtede eest kulla maksmise peatama ning Thornton väitis korduvalt selle poliitika tagasipööramist. Tema vaated selles ja muudes majandusküsimustes olid vastuolus tema perekonnaga, eriti aga venna Samueliga, kellest sai Inglismaa Panga president. Ta oli üks kolmest väärismetallikomitee raporti (1810) autorist, mille ajastus ja asjaolud tõid kaasa finantsilise ebakindluse ning seadsid isegi Thorntoni enda panga ohtu.

Thorntoni raamat 1802 Uurimine Suurbritannia paberkrediidi olemuse ja mõju kohta tähistas teda juhtiva majandusmõtlejana. Selles püüdis ta ümber lükata levinud arvamuse, et paberkrediit oli tolleaegsete finantsraskuste peamine põhjus, ning soovitada, kuidas Inglismaa keskpank peaks valuutakõikumistega seoses käituma. Raamat tõlgiti prantsuse ja saksa keelde ning anti välja ka Ameerikas. Kuigi teda varjutasid peagi teised kaasaegsed majandusmõtlejad, hinnati 20. sajandil tema panust rahateooriasse ümber ja seda hakati käsitlema John Maynard Keynesi ideede eelkäijana.

Pereelu ja iseloom

1. märtsil 1796 abiellus Thornton Hulli lähedal Lääne-Ella Venemaa kaupmehe Joseph Sykesi tütre Marianne Sykesega (1765-1815). Nad elasid Battersea Rise'is, mida Thornton oli oluliselt laiendanud, sealhulgas ovaalse raamatukogu lisamise, mille olevat kavandanud William Pitt.

Kuigi tema tütar Marianne peeti teda avalikult külmaks ja ebaselgeks, kujutas ta teda kiinduva isana. Teda tunnustati suuremeelsuse poolest ja poissmehena andis ta ära kuus seitsmendikku oma sissetulekust. On teatatud, et ta seisis maksejõuetute klientide kõrval, kelle raskused tekkisid kolmandatelt osapooltelt ja ettevõtmistelt, kellele ta oli tutvustanud, ühel korral tema isikliku kuluga 20 000 naela. Tulumaksu kehtestamise kohta 1799. aastal nõudis ta eraviisiliselt, et peab maksma rohkem, kui ta pidi maksma, vastavalt seisukohtadele, mida ta oli väljendanud parlamendi aruteludes uue maksu kohta.

Thorntonil oli terve elu halb tervis, sealhulgas unetus, peavalu ja seedehäired. Öeldi, et ületöötamine aitas neid sümptomeid kaasa, ja tema pangapartner Peter Free kirjutas 1807. aastal, et „härra Thornton on päris hea, kuid teeb tavaliselt avaliku ja eraettevõtlusega liiga palju tööd”. Ta võttis Bathi ja Buxtoni vett, et oma sümptomeid leevendada.

Henryl ja Mariannel oli koos üheksa last:

  • Marianne, sündinud 1797, sündinud 1800
  • Lucy, sündinud 1801
  • Watson, sündinud 1802
  • Isabella, sündinud 1803
  • Sophia, sündinud 1805
  • Henrietta, sündinud 1807
  • Laura, sündinud 1809
  • Charles, sündinud 1810

Surm ja pärand

Sügiseks 1814 haigestus Thornton raskelt tuberkuloosi. Tema sõber ja nõbu William Wilberforce kolis oma pere Kensington Gore'i majast välja, et Thornton saaks seal elada, vältides vajadust reisida Battersea Rise'i.

16. jaanuaril 1815 suri Thornton Kensington Gore'is. Ta maeti 24. jaanuaril Claphami Püha Pauluse kiriku perekonnahoidlasse.

Tema naine Marianne suri 15. oktoobril 1815 samuti tuberkuloosi.

Thorntonit mäletatakse tänapäeval eelkõige Claphami sekti liikmeks olemise, kaasatud osalemisega orjakaubanduse kaotamise kampaanias ning misjoni- ja heategevuslike eesmärkide aktiivse toetamisega ning panusega rahateooriasse. Aastal 1979 korraldas Londoni City Ülikooli Cass Business School iga -aastase Thorntoni loengu „veendumuses, et selle rahanduse ja panganduse üliõpilane ei peaks tundma selle 19. sajandi majandusteadlase ja pankuri nime ja tööd”.


Sir Henry Thorntoni tragöödia

Kuningliku raudtee- ja transpordikomisjoni nimetamine 1931. aastal tähendas Thorntoni lõppu. Rühm konservatiivseid parlamendiliikmeid, kes said tuntuks purustamisbrigaadina, kiusas teda järgmisel suvel tagasi astuma. Samuti võeti temalt pension, mida üks liberaalidest saadik nimetas "kõige tooremaks tehinguks, mida Kanada valitsus on kunagi saanud". Ebatavaliselt kartlik oli ta keeldunud Bennetti valitsuse vastu kriitilisel tunnil vastu võitlemast. Ta püüdis vaikselt minna. Kui liberaalsed parlamendiliikmed nõudsid tema isiklike paberite üleandmist, põletas ta need pigem ära kui lasi neid kasutada poliitilistel eesmärkidel.

Ööl vastu 1. augustit 1932 istusid Thornton ja tema naine raadioga varustatud eratreenerisse ning lahkusid Montreali Bonaventure jaamast New Yorki. Viimaste, pahatahtlike sammude seerias lasi Bennetti valitsus tugeva relvastusega Kanada suurpanga ta juhatusest eemaldada ja mürgitas seejärel tema võimaluse juhtida India osariigi raudteed. Ta suri, murdus vähki New Yorgis 14. märtsil 1933, õhtul, mil ta pidi Kanadas tagasi CNR -i töötajate antud õhtusöögile. Hiljem tunnustati raudteeühinguid massiivsete kampaaniate korraldamisega iga Wracking Brigade liikme vastu ja neil oli rõõm vaadata, kuidas nad kõik koos Bennettiga 1935. aasta föderaalvalimistel alistati.

Irooniline, et kui kuninglik komisjon avaldas oma aruande raudteede kohta alles kuus nädalat pärast Thorntoni lahkumist, ei olnud see nii kriitiline kui oodatud. CPR -i peeti raudtee laiendamisel sama süüdi kui CNR -i. Volinikud kritiseerisid mõningaid CNR -i kulutusi, kuid juhtisid tähelepanu sellele, et parlament on kõik kulud heaks kiitnud ja see ei ole "esitanud märkimisväärset piirangut neile esitatavate raudteede hinnangute suhtes". CPR -i hämmastuseks ei kirjutatud CNR -raadio kohta ühtegi negatiivset sõna.

Samuti ei andnud Bennetti valitsus saatuslikku lööki Thorntoni raadiosaatele, nagu CPR oli lootnud. Bennett oli varem sunnitud CPR -ist distantseeruma, suuresti seetõttu, et avalikkus kiitis Thorntoni töö heaks ja oli kindlalt vastu transpordimonopolile Kanadas. Bennett oli isegi 1930. aasta valimiskampaania ajal pidanud vajalikuks korrata kuulsat väidet: "Konkurents kunagi: ühinemine mitte kunagi!"


Parandused

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Jane Austeni maailm

Nelsoni mälestusmärk. Aheldatud ori. Pildi viisakalt @Tony Grant

Lugejaid küsiv, see üsna tõsine Briti orjaomandi teema mängib rolli Jane Austeni maailmas ja tema romaanides. Ta käsitles seda küsimust kaudselt Mansfield Parkis ja Emmas, kusjuures Bertrami varandus toetus orjakaubandusele ja proua Eltoni kaupmehe isa asus Bristolis, mis on üks kolmest Suurbritannia suurest orjakaubanduskeskusest. Olen kindel, et tema kaks meremeest venda jutustasid kirjades eredaid lugusid oma reisidest ja kui nad koju tagasi tulid. Jane, kes oli hästi loetud ja osales perevestlustes, teadis hästi inimkaubandusest ja ekspluateerimisest. Iroonilisel kombel patrullis Charles mõned aastad pärast tema surma orjakaubanduse vastu. Selles postituses käsitleb Tony Grant Briti orjaomandi pärandit. Britid, jumalakartmatud ja#8217em, kaotasid orjuse aastakümneid enne USA -d ning tsiviliseeritumalt ja rahumeelsemalt. (Tony Grant, kes elab Wimbledonis, on Jane Austen ’s Worldi sagedane kaastööline. Külastage tema teisi ajaveebe aadressil London Calling ja The Novels of Virginia Woolf. Ta jälgib oma esivanemaid orjakaubandusega. Minu jaoks olen ma sündinud Hollandi kodanik. Hollandlaste häbiväärne tegevus orjade transportimisel Aafrikast ja nende roll orjakaubanduses on hästi dokumenteeritud.)

(Uurinud UCL -s (University College London) Catherine Halli kaasaegse Briti sotsiaal- ja kultuuriajaloo professor ja tema projektimeeskond.)

Ülaltoodud pealkiri on katusnimetus, mis on antud kahele projektile, millest üks kannab pealkirja: „Orjaomandi mõju jälgimine kaasaegsele Suurbritanniale” ja teine: „Legacies of British Slave Ownership”. Need viivad järgmise projektini pealkirjaga „Briti Kariibi mere orjaomandi struktuur ja tähtsus 1763–1833”.

Claphami kirik, Püha Kolmainsus. Pilt @Tony Grant

1974. aastal olin õpetajakoolituse teisel kursusel. Tegin kolmeaastast õpetajakoolitust Gypsy Hilli õpetajate koolituskoolis, mis asub Kingstoni mäel, umbes miili kaugusel Kingston upon Thamesi kesklinnast. Lõpuks ühendati kolledž Kingstoni ülikooliga. Uues ülikoolihariduse osakonnas ei säilinud kahjuks pigem romantiliselt kõlav epiteet, Gypsy Hill. Minu õpetamispraktika oli sellel teisel aastal veeta kuus nädalat inglise keelt Clapham Commonsi lõunaosas asuvas Henry Thorntoni keskkoolis. See oli raske koht noore õpetajana. Kuigi Claphami ei ole päris klassifitseeritud kesklinnaks, elas selles piirkonnas palju ebasoodsas olukorras peresid, millest mõned olid etnilised vähemused ja paljud neist Lääne -India päritolu. Henry Thornton oleks olnud rahul kooli etnilise seguga. Minu esimene inglise keele tund, lugemine ja arutelu, Siider roosiga,Laurie Lee, pidi olema koos viieteistkümneaastaste klassiga. Niipea kui ma klassiruumi astusin, tõstis suur võimsalt ehitatud Lääne -India poiss mind toolil tagasi ja vaatas mulle otsa, püüdis mind välja vaadata, tõstis kergemeelselt parema rusika ja purustas selle läbi tema kõrval oleva akna klaasivalu vaatega koridorile. Ma arvan, et veri pidi mu näost üsna kiiresti välja voolama ja ma palusin teisel õpilasel saada aastajuht, kes tuli mulle kohe appi. Lõunarannikult Southamptonist tulles oli see minu esimene kogemus Claphamist.

Claphami Püha Kolmainu kiriku interjöör, pilt @ Tony Grant

Sellel kogemusel on aga palju seoseid Suurbritannia orjakaubanduse varasema ajalooga ja sellega, millest ma selles essees kirjutan. Henry Thornton sündis Claphamis 10. märtsil 1760. Tema isa oli olnud üks evangeelse liikumise asutajaid Suurbritannias. Tema isa ja tema nõod olid pankurid. Tegelikult sai tema vennast Samuel Thorntonist Inglismaa Panga president. Henry ise oli väga edukas pankur. Bank – Down, Thornton ja Free – said Londoni edukaimaks pangaks. Henry Thorntonile omistatakse kaasaegse keskpangandussüsteemi isa. Ta oli suur teoreetik ja kirjutas pangandusest raamatuid.

Henryst sai Southwarki parlamendiliige, mis asub The Cityst Londoni silla vastas. Siiski oli ta erinevalt teistest tolleaegsetest pankuritest. Suurbritannia rikkus oli tihedalt seotud orjakaubandusega, kuid Henry Thornton oli abolitsionist. Henry Thornton oli üks evangeelsete reformijate Claphami sekti asutajatest, kes muuseas kohtusid ja kummardasid koos Püha Kolmainsuse kirikus, mis on tänapäeval otse Henry Thorntoni kooli vastas, kus mul oli märkimisväärne õpetamiskogemus. Ta oli eelkõige orjakaubanduse kaotamise eest võitleja. Tema lähedane sõber ja nõbu oli William Wilberforce. Kaks meest elasid koos peredega Battersea Rise'is, mis asub kiriku Clapham Common vastasküljel ja kus asub tema nime kasutav kool. Henry oli nende paljude kampaaniate rahastaja Claphami sekti taga.

William Wilbeforce. Pilt @Tony Grant

Catherine Hall ja tema projektimeeskond püüavad mõista orjuse rolli ulatust ja piire Suurbritannia ajaloo ja selle kestva pärandi kujundamisel. Nad keskenduvad erinevatele aspektidele, nagu kaubandus, kultuur, ajalugu, impeerium, füüsilised omadused, näiteks orjusest rahastatavad suured majad ja mõisad ning ka poliitilised aspektid. Kuidas oli orjus seotud riikliku ja kohaliku poliitikaga? In Henry Thornton we see many of these aspects even if his actions and beliefs were contrary to the slave trade. He was a member of parliament who campaigned against slavery. He used his wealth to counteract slavery. I wonder if the West Indian lad who broke the window in my lesson realised that his destiny and the generations of his family before him were connected with the man whose name was on the school he was attending?

There is rather a surprising link and revelation about Henry Thornton in the research and data the UCL team has gathered. Kate Donnington, one of the PHD researchers on the team, has written a thesis about George Hibbert, one of the most influential characters and one of the major figures amongst West Indian merchants.

George Hibbert was a leading member of the pro slavery lobby and so one of the main adversaries of Henry Thornton over the slavery bill. However, Hibbert was a philanthropist and did many good works for charities. In 1824 he helped set up the National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck. Nowadays that has become the RNLI, the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, which saves the lives of many around our coasts to this day. He was also involved in creating The Royal Institute. The running and creation of the Royal institute for the arts and science also involved, Henry Thornton and his brother John. It seems that individuals could be absolutely opposed to each other over slavery but work together in other aspects of the nation’s life.

This project by UCL is of national and international importance, but it also has a very personal meaning. Another of the researchers in the project team, James Dawkins, is studying the slave owning presence of his own family, the Dawkins, through the data collected. This inspired me to look up my surname, Grant, to see who amongst the Grant clan from North East Scotland around the Spey Valley, was connected with slavery. I didn’t have any hopes for direct ancestors to myself being involved in slavery unless were crew on the slave ships we were labourers in the fields and workers in the whisky distilleries. We owned no land as such and certainly had no wealth.

Slave Ship. Image @Liverpool Museum

I discovered there were many Grants involved in the slave trade and plantation ownership though. There were various Alexander Grants, not all the same person I am sure. Alexander, must have been a popular name amongst the Grants. In fact my son, Samuel, has Alexander as his second name. There is an Alice Grant, one of my daughters is called Alice, a Betty, and various Anne Grants. It quickly becomes evident that many women, perhaps through inheritances, were investors in and owners of slaves. The list of Grants goes on.There are one hundred and eighty five Grants listed. I have an uncle, John Grant. There are many John Grants in the list and my father is Robert and yes there are many Roberts in the list. My own family’s Christian names are amongst the most prevalent Christian names associated with Grants in the survey. But my surname Grant is one Scottish surname amongst hundreds. If my families name is mirrored in the survey by all the other Scottish clan names there must be an inordinate number of Scottish families connected with the slave trade.

“The abolition of the slave trade Or the inhumanity of dealers in human flesh exemplified in Captn. Kimber’s treatment of a young Negro girl of 15 for her virjen (sic) modesty.”
Shows an incident of an enslaved African girl whipped to death for refusing to dance naked on the deck of the slave ship Recovery, a slaver owned by Bristol merchants. Captain John Kimber was denounced before the House of Commons by William Wilberforce over the incident. In response to outrage by abolitionists, Captain Kimber was brought up on charges before the High Court of Admiralty in June 1792, but acquitted of all charges. Image @Wikimedia

I took one Grant to look at more specifically. Alexander Grant , the survey does not show when he was born but he was born at Abelour, Banffshire. He died on the 7th may 1854 He was a slave owner, planter and merchant on the island of Jamaica. He had Abelour House built for him in 1838. The house still exists today. His will left £300,000. His estates in Jamaica and Scotland were inherited by his niece, Margaret Gordon McPherson Grant.

Slaves in transit, Liverpool

An interesting character I discovered on the UCL website was Ann Katherine Storer (née Hill, 1785-1854) She was born in Jamaica, where she married Anthony Gilbert Storer. She inherited her husband’s estates after his death, which not only included his Jamaican estates but also Purley Park in Berkshire, England. Anthony Gilbert Storer died in June 1818 and Ann Katherine returned to Purley Park with her five surviving children. There were problems with large debts and disputes over recompense. A rather strange and disturbing story is related about Ann Katherine Storer. When she returned to England she brought some slaves with her to work at Purley House.

“In 1824, Ann Katherine Storer was accused of the maltreatment of Philip Thompson, a black servant who was bought as a slave in Jamaica and brought to England by the Storers. According to Philip Thompson’s testimony, “flogging was the usual punishment for any misdemeanour and he was often ill treated… One day in July 1824 Mrs Storer was already up when Philip rose at 6 am. Finding that he had not been up in time to clean the lobby she ordered him to be taken to the “whipping place”. After removing his coat, waistcoat and shirt, he then received about a dozen lashes from a hunting whip wielded by the butler so that the blood ran down his back… Mrs Storer was said to have been present and said [to Robert Stewart, the butler], “Well done, Robert, give him more”…

African slaves in Liverpool

There is an element of sadism in this. She almost seems to take pleasure in the ill treatment of Philip. Ann was born and brought up on a slave plantation and was obviously used to dealing with slaves. This story made me wonder if this was a usual sort of treatment that was commonplace.

I mentioned above that the project team are focusing on aspects such as commerce, culture, history, the Empire, physical attributes such as the great houses and estates financed by slavery and also political aspects. Money from slavery was used to build Abelour House in Scotland as one example and the estate still exist today. George Hibbet was a philanthropist as well as a slave owner and he did many charitable works including setting up the forerunner to the RNLI as well as the London Institution, which was for the diffusion of useful knowledge in the arts and sciences. He acted as both its president and vice president between 1805 and 1830. He was a member of a number of learned societies and clubs including the Freemasons, the Linnean society and the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries. Hibbet collected books, prints and art. He also inherited a house with its estate called Munden in Hertfordshire. I am taking George Hibbet as an example, but the point is that this sort of philanthropy and range of interests in the arts, literature, science, charities and so on is replicated throughout the four thousand individuals of wealth and property identified by this research.

Slavery and it’s proceeds were and are bound up with the whole of society, good and bad, and we must still be benefiting from it today. Eric Williams, the historian who wrote, “Capitalism and Slavery,” believes that the slave trade and slavery, “provided not only essential demand for manufactures and supply of raw materials but also vital capital for the early phases of industrialisation. This has been partially substantiated through the histories of particular family firms.”

In 1807 the slave trade was abolished in Britain and it’s Empire. In 1833 slavery was abolished by the British Parliament in the British Caribbean, Mauritius and The Cape. These people in the survey have been identified as the recipients of compensation for the loss of wealth when slavery came to an end. However it is important to note that what replaced it was not much better. The great sugar, tea. cotton and coffee plantations were still there. The slaves got their freedom but were then signed up to what was called an apprentice scheme. This meant that they signed up for work on the estate for a minimum number of years. Life did not materially or actually change for them. In many ways, it is interesting to think about what slavery is and means. Slavery is obviously the worst sort of work contract but we all have to work. We all have no choice once we have signed a contract. The conditions of work are very favourable on the whole for us but there are legal and social requirements we have to fulfill. The jobs we have can in no way be compared to the plight of a slave but there are degrees. Is working for someone else and being contracted to work a type of benign slavery?

The research Catherine Hall and her team are doing is fantastic but it has had its critics. There have been concerns both in the United Kingdom and in the Caribbean that the project team is white. One argument in defence is that white people as well as black people were all part of the slave trade. By putting the emphasis in the study on individual slave owners there is a fear that the case for reparations to be made by the state could be weakened. There is also a concern for banks and legal firms founded in the 17th century or before who have continued to this day and who have inherited the benefits derived from slavery in the past. The UCL group has said they are prepared to share their empirical data with these firms but also the contextualisation of that evidence.

Triangular slave trade. Liverpool

Professor Hall and her colleagues suggest that there are some key questions and problems that remain to be addressed:


THORNTON Genealogy

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Henry Thornton

(10 March 1760, London – 16 January 1815,[1] London) was an English economist, banker, philanthropist and parliamentarian.

He was the son of John Thornton (1729�) of Clapham, London, who had been one of the early patrons of the evangelical movement in Britain. At the age of five, Henry attended the school of Mr Davis at Wandsworth Common, and later with Mr Roberts at Point Pleasant, Wandsworth. From 1778 he was employed in the counting house of his cousin Godfrey Thornton, two years later joining his father’s company, where he later became a partner.

In 1784 Thornton joined the banking firm of Down and Free of London, later becoming a partner of the company which became known as Down, Thornton and Free. It was under his direction that this became one of the largest banking firms in London, with regional offices in other British cities.

In 1782 Henry Thornton had been urged to seek a seat in Parliament, and applied to contest one of the two seats for Hull. He soon withdrew on a point of principle, after learning that it was local custom to pay each voter two guineas in order to secure their vote. In September the same year Thornton was elected as member for Southwark, London. Despite lacking popular appeal, and refusing to bribe voters in a similar way to those of Hull, he became respected as a man of morals and integrity.

As an independent MP, Thornton sided with the Pittites, and in 1783 voted for peace with America. In general he tended to support William Pitt, Henry Addington and the Whig administration of William Grenville and Charles Fox. He seldom spoke in the House of Commons, as much of his contribution was in the various parliamentary committees on which he sat. In 1795 he became the treasurer of the committee responsible for the publication of the Cheap Repository Tracts.[2]

He served on committees to examine the public debt (1798), the Irish exchange (1804), public expenditure (1807) and the bullion committee (1810), which scrutinized the high price of gold, foreign exchange, and the state of the British currency. The report of the committee, written by Thornton, argued for the resumption of gold payments in exchange for notes and deposits, which the Bank of England (of which his elder brother, Samuel Thornton, was a director) had suspended in 1797, but the recommendation was not well received at the time, and gold redemption on demand was not restored until 1821. In the next few years he continued to press for these measures to be implemented, publishing two reports in 1811.

This period 1797� was a time of major change and great confusion in the British banking system, and the currency crisis of 1797 led to Thornton’s greatest contribution as an economist, for which he is most remembered today. In 1802 he wrote An Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain, in which he set out to correct common misconceptions, such as the view that the increase in paper credit was the principal cause of the economic ills of the day. This was a work of great importance, and gave a detailed account of the British monetary system as well as a detailed examination of the ways in which the Bank of England should act to counteract fluctuations in the value of the pound.

A successful merchant banker, as a monetary theorist Thornton has been described as the father of the modern central bank. An opponent of the real bills doctrine, he was a defender of the bullionist position and a significant figure in monetary theory, his process of monetary expansion anticipating the theories of Knut Wicksell regarding the "cumulative process which restates the Quantity Theory in a theoretically coherent form". His work on 19th century monetary theory has won praise from present-day economists for his forward-thinking ideas, including Friedrich August von Hayek who wrote an introduction to his

An Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain

and John Maynard Keynes alike.[3]

Abolitionist and reformer

Henry Thornton was one of the founders of the Clapham Sect of evangelical reformers and a foremost campaigner for the abolition of the slave trade. A close friend and cousin of William Wilberforce, he is credited with being the financial brain behind their many campaigns for social reform and philanthropic causes which the group supported. For some years Thornton and Wilberforce shared a house called Battersea Rise which Thornton had bought in 1792. The cousins spent much time here co-ordinating their activities and entertaining their friends. After their marriages in 1796𠄷 they continued to live and work in close proximity for another decade.

In 1791 Thornton played a major part in the establishment of the Sierra Leone Company, which took over the failed attempt by Granville Sharp to create a colony for the settlement for freed slaves in Africa. As the company’s foremost director, he virtually administered the colony as chairman of the company until responsibility was transferred to the Crown in 1808. It was at this time that he became a friend of Zachary Macaulay, who was governor of the colony 1794�.

In 1802 Thornton was one of the founders of the Christian Observer, the Clapham Sect’s journal edited by Zachary Macaulay, to which he contributed many articles. He was also involved in supporting the spread of Christian missionary work, including the founding of the Society for Missions to Africa and the East (later the Church Missionary Society) in 1799, and the British and Foreign Bible Society (now the Bible Society) in 1804, of which he became the first treasurer. A friend of Hannah More, he assisted in the writing and publication of her Cheap Repository tracts. In 1806, Thornton served as Manager of the newly formed London Institution.

Personal life

In 1796 Thornton married Marianne Sykes (1765�), daughter of Joseph Sykes, a merchant from Hull. Neil oli üheksa last. Both parents died in 1815 and the children were adopted by a family friend, Sir Robert Inglis.[4] The eldest child, Marianne Thornton, was a bluestocking who lived in Clapham for most of her long life. She was the subject of a biography by her cousin, E.M. Forster (1879�), the novelist, who was one of Henry Thornton's great-grandchildren. The oldest son, Henry Sykes Thornton (1800�), succeeded his father in the banking business, but the firm was merged into Williams Deacon's Bank following the financial crisis of 1825𠄶. One of the younger daughters, Sophia Thornton, married John Leslie-Melville, 9th Earl of Leven). Another daughter, Isabella, in 1841 married the clergyman Benjamin Harrison who became a Canon of Canterbury and Archdeacon of Maidstone.[5]

Henry Thornton was buried at St Paul's Church, Rectory Grove, Clapham, where a commemorative plaque records the fact, with an additional reference to the family vault nearby. (A selection of photographs is displayed on the website of the school named after him: www.oldthorntoniansclapham.org.uk)

David Laidler (1987). "Thornton, Henry (1760�)," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 4, pp. 633�. John Hicks (1967). "Thornton's Paper Credit'," in Critical Essays in Monetary Theory, pp. 174- 88. Oxford. [ Francis Horner] (1802). Review of Thornton's Paper Credit, Edinburgh Review, 1(1] Art. XXV, (pp. 172�. Extended analytical abstract, sections I-IV. Pollock, John. Wilberforce: God’s Statesman. (Eastbourne: Kingsway Publications, 2001). ISBN 0-85476-907-2. Stott, Anne. Hannah More – The First Victorian (Oxford: University Press, 2004) ISBN 978-0-19-927488-8 Tolley, Christopher. Henry Thornton in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: University Press, 2005) ISBN 978-0-19-861411-1. [edit] WorksAn Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain, 1802. Introduction by Friedrich Hayek (1938) & chapter links.


THORNTON, Henry (1760-1815), of Battersea Rise, Clapham Common, Surr.

b. 10 Mar. 1760, 3rd s. of John Thornton, Russia merchant and dir. Bank of England, of Clapham by 2nd w. Lucy, da. ja h. of Samuel Watson, Russia merchant, of Kingston-upon-Hull Yorks. bro. of Robert Thornton* and Samuel Thornton*. educ. Dr Davis’s sch. Wandsworth Common 1765-73 Mr Roberts’s sch. Point Pleasant, Wandsworth 1773-8. m. 1 Mar. 1796, Mary Anne, da. of Joseph Sykes, Russia merchant, of West Ella, Yorks., 3s. 6da.

Peetud kontorid

Asst. Russia Co. 1789-1811 chairman, Sierra Leone Co. 1791-1811.

Capt. Battersea and Streatham vols. 1798.

Biograafia

Of the Thornton brothers, ‘all City people and connected with merchants, and nothing but merchants on every side’, Henry was the most obvious heir to his father’s evangelical and philanthropic endeavours. Inheriting £40,000 from him in 1790, in addition to his partnership in the London bank of Down, Thornton and Free and a share in the family business interests at Hull, he devoted six-sevenths of his income to charity until his marriage in 1796 (when he was worth £7,000 p.a.) and one-third thereafter. A sharp critic of his father’s rough and ready approach to life, he aspired to the suaviter in modo of his cousin William Wilberforce* who described him in 1789 as ‘a most excellent, upright, pure, and generous young man: may it please God long to continue him a blessing to the public, and to amend his health’. Wilberforce saved him from ‘a sort of infidelity’ and set up house with him from 1792 until his marriage their enthusiasm for the abolition of the slave trade secured him the chairmanship of the Sierra Leone Company founded in July 1791 to promote African commerce and civilization. He had championed the Company in the House that session and by the end of the year it kept him busy ‘from morning till night’, so that ‘at present, business, politics, friendship, seem all suspended for the sake of it’. He informed the House, 2 Apr. 1792, that he was proud to be the only merchant supporting abolition of the slave trade that day. Around him and Wilberforce gathered the Clapham Sect, or the ‘Saints’ as they were dubbed, including Charles Grant I* and Edward James Eliot*. The King remarked that he hated ‘such canting Methodists’ as Thornton.1

On his unopposed election in 1790, Thornton had combined the profession of ‘just support to administration’ with his perennial claim to independence of party: ‘he never gave one party vote’. He favoured relief for religious dissenters, and abstained from voting with Pitt on the Russian armament and on 30 Dec. 1794, 26 Jan., 6 Feb. and 27 May 1795 joined Wilberforce in voting on principle for a negotiated peace with France. He admitted (26 Jan.) that the moment was not propitious and, having presented a petition from Southwark in favour of peace on 6 Feb., scrupulously presented a counter-petition on 20 Feb. He was satisfied that the majority of his constituents were in favour of legislation against sedition, 1 Dec. 1795, and next day signed the London merchants’ declaration of support for Pitt. At his re-election in 1796, when he headed the poll, he was still a ‘general friend of administration’, having at first supported the war with France and then waived his objections to it on discovering that government could not honourably negotiate peace. He was prepared to support a temperate and seasonable reform of Parliament and voted for it, 26 May 1797. That session he was a respected spokesman before the secret committee on the Bank of England and a member of the finance committee he then investigated the Ordnance accounts and, in the following session, the victualling office. He claimed his constituents’ pressure for his opposition to Pitt’s triple tax assessment, 14 and 18 Dec. 1797, but apart from a proposal to improve commercial assessment, he approved the income tax as the only way to continue war finance, 27 Dec. 1798, and silently raised his own contribution in accordance with the proposal he had made in the House. In 1798 and 1799 he assisted Wilberforce by promoting a bill to limit the African slave trade, which was eventually defeated in the Lords, 5 July 1799. He was a champion of paper money, 27 Nov., 5 Dec. 1800, 23 Mar. 1801, denying that it adversely affected the price of provisions, and in 1802 published his views in an authoritative Enquiry into the nature and effects of the paper credit of Great Britain.2

Thornton welcomed the purity of the Southwark election of 1802, in which he again headed the poll he had complained in the House, 20 Feb. 1797, of the abuses prevalent under a system of electoral treating. He admitted that he had gone far in supporting government and was well disposed to Addington, who had made peace with France.3 He disliked his tampering with Pitt’s sinking fund scheme, 3 June 1802, but assisted in the defence of the continued restriction of cash payments, 11 Feb. 1803. It was the resumption of hostilities that alienated him he joined the minority on it, 24 May 1803, and probably also voted with Pitt for the orders of the day on 3 June. He joined the minorities against Addington on defence, 10 and 25 Apr. 1804, and was listed a supporter of Pitt by then and during his second ministry, until constituency pressure dictated his votes in the majorities against Melville, 8 Apr. and 12 June 1805. He was preoccupied with the defence of the Sierra Leone Company against its critics in debate, and with the presentation of the case against Burdett in the Middlesex elections, which displeased some of his constituents. He was ‘cool’ about the payment of Pitt’s debts after his death. He voted for the Grenville ministry’s repeal of Pitt’s Additional Force Act, 30 Apr. 1806, and was not an opponent of theirs in the ensuing election. He was trying to interest them in taking over the management of the Sierra Leone Company, to save him having to apply (as he had done since 1800) for annual grants which never sufficed, 20 Jan. 1807. He approved Windham’s military plans, apart from their neglect of the volunteers, though he feared they would not meet immediate requirements, 23 Jan. 1807. Having been named to the finance committee on 10 Feb., he also gave credit to the ministry’s new plan of finance, 19 Feb. He was among the staunch supporters of their abolition of the slave trade. It looked, when he opposed the grant of the duchy of Lancaster to Perceval on 25 Mar., as if he would go into opposition with the Grenville ministry but it was as an advocate of retrenchment that he spoke. He informed his electors in May that he disapproved the late ministry’s handling of the Catholic bill and upheld the royal prerogative.4

Thornton tried to interest the Portland ministry, too, in taking over the Sierra Leone Company, 29 July 1807, and in the following year succeeded. After the abolition of the slave trade, a jubilant Wilberforce had asked him ‘well, Henry, what shall we abolish next?’ The reply was, ‘The lottery I think’. In fact it was economical reform that preoccupied Thornton in the Parliament of 1807.

No place or pension ere he got
For self or for connection
We shall not tax the Treasury
By Thornton’s re-election

was the verse sung by his Southwark supporters.5 On being re-elected to the finance committee, 30 June 1807, he sought to carry out the reductions proposed by its predecessor, collaborating with Henry Bankes and sometimes taking the chair. The committee’s report on the Bank, which aimed to save the public £240,000 p.a. was supervised and defended by him in the House, 10 Feb. 1808, in defiance of the views of his family and City connexions. At the same time he concurred with Wilberforce’s line of judging ministerial measures by their merits, which palliated opposition fears that he had gone over to ministers.6 He voted with opposition on the Copenhagen expedition, 3 Feb. 1808, on the mutiny bill, 14 Mar., and on the admission of Catholics to the Bank of Ireland, 30 May. He regretted the amendment secured by the ministerial members of the finance committee to their report on sinecures, 29 June 1808. While he objected to the wilder allegations made by Col. Wardle in the House on corruption in the army administration, 31 Jan. 1809, he thought the Duke of York had connived at it and accordingly voted for Bankes’s amendment of 15 Mar. and opposed Perceval’s exoneratory resolution, 17 Mar. On 20 Mar. he supported the opposition amendment to proceed no further against the duke, following his resignation from the command. This line of conduct did not go far enough to please many of his constituents, as he discovered at a Southwark meeting on the subject, 12 Apr., but they applauded his promise to support parliamentary reform and the abolition of sinecures.7 On 20 Apr. he advocated making the purchase of seats in the House an offence under the sale of offices prevention bill. He voted with opposition on allegations of ministerial corruption, 25 Apr. and 11 May. He was chairman of the committee which exposed the peculation of £44,000 by the Dutch commissioners, debated on 1 May. He was as good as his word in supporting sinecure regulation, 8 May, 2 and 8 June, and parliamentary reform. He complained that Curwen’s reform bill did not go far enough, penalizing voters but not those who bought them, and he voted for Burdett’s reform motion on 15 June. On the other hand, he assured Col. Wardle that there was no more scope for retrenchment than that already sketched by the finance committee, 19 June.

On 31 Jan. 1810, having seconded Bankes’s motion to abolish offices in reversion in perpetuity, he was renamed to the finance committee. He had voted with ministers on the address, 23 Jan., but joined opposition throughout on the Scheldt inquiry, so that they listed him ‘hopeful’. He supported Bankes’s amendment to the army estimates, 1 Mar. He voted against Burdett’s imprisonment and for the release of Gale Jones, 5, 16 Apr., and on 15 June presented his constituents’ petition for Burdett’s release. He voted for Romilly’s bid to limit the imposition of capital punishment for theft, 1 May, spoke and voted for sinecure reform, 3 and 17 May, and voted for parliamentary reform, 21 May 1810: he was circularized, unavailingly it seems, by the Friends of Constitutional Reform in 1811. He joined opposition on the Regency questions of 1 and 21 Jan. 1811 and voted for the election treating bill, 25 Mar. He opposed the reinstatement of the Duke of York as commander-in-chief of the army, 6 June. That session he spoke as a member of two committees: that on commercial credit, appointed 1 Mar., supporting their findings, and as a member (sometimes chairman) of the bullion committee appointed the previous session.

Thornton, with Francis Horner and William Huskisson, had prepared the report of the bullion committee which he defended on 6 May 1811. He set out to prove that if the shortage of specie had its origin in an unfavourable balance of trade, it was exacerbated by the quantity of paper money in circulation, which must be restricted. These views he further defended against his critics on 13 May and published. He went on to express reservations about the bank-note bill, 15 July 1811, 26 Mar., 10 Apr. 1812, but admitted, 8 Dec. 1812, that the time was not ripe for the resumption of cash payments by the Bank, which led Robert Peel to suppose that he had made a ‘complete recantation’. He could scarcely have concurred.8 On 13 Feb. 1812 Thornton opposed Whitbread’s motion blaming the orders in council for the imminence of war with the USA, but he joined opposition to the orders, 3 Mar., and supported investigation into abuses of them, 16 Apr. He voted steadily for sinecure reform and retrenchment that session, describing the grant to the royal princesses as a burden to the people, 23 Mar. He also voted for Catholic relief, 24 Apr., but was in the government minority against a more comprehensive administration, 21 May.

Thornton was listed ‘doubtful’ by the Treasury after his re-election in 1812. As if to confirm this, he opposed Vansittart not only on his bank-note bill but also on his plan of finance, which damaged the sinking fund, 3 Mar., 25 Mar., 7 Apr. 1813. He supported Catholic relief throughout the session and defended the sinecure regulation bill, 29 Mar. He gave a qualified support to the East India Company commercial monopoly, 3 June, suggesting that it be extended, for the time being, to free London merchants. Like his two brothers in the House, he held East India Company stock. He supported Christian missions in India, one of his own interests, and was an advocate (like his father) of relief of prisoners for debt, 8 Apr., and of a resident clergy, 8 July. His attendance fell with declining health in 1814, when he voted for Romilly’s bill against attaintment, 25 Apr. supported the election expenses bill, 9 May, the London prisons bill, 14 June, and the relief grant to German war victims, 14 July. He had been added to the select committee on the corn trade on 7 Apr. 1813 a year later he advocated the postponement of measures for agricultural protection, 6 May, and was named to the new select committee of 6 June. He died 16 Jan. 1815, an outstanding philanthropist, the intellectual mainstay of the Clapham evangelical group and a most scrupulous Member of Parliament.9


Henry Thornton - History

The Brewery: History and Timeline

1836: Don Carlos Berry brewed beer in a log cabin that was located on the site of the present 400 Margaret Street.

1857-1897: John S. Bielfeldt Brewing:

John S. Bielfeldt was born January 27, 1834, in the town of Hemme, Holstein, Germany. He emigrated with his parents in 1851 and settled in Blue Island, IL, where they remained one year. On January 26, 1858, he married Miss Crescentia Ladoux, born September 13, 1835, in Canton Berne, Switzerland.

In 1857, John Simon Bielfeldt relocated to Thornton and erected a brewery with a ten barrel kettle. In 1876, he constructed the building with a residence which is on the site at the present time and began a 20 barrel business.

In 1895, he placed a 50 barrel kettle, and in 1896 put up an ice plant. The beer he brewed was known as &ldquoJ.S. Bielfeldt Lager Beer.&rdquo Thornton&rsquos clear spring water was a great infuence in starting the business. A few years later a well was drilled. The grain was ground by horses on a small scale grist mill. His market was the surrounding towns, mostly in Blue Island, Lansing, Thornton and Hegewisch, but Bielfeldt also delivered the beer by horse and wagon as far as Beecher and Eagle Lake, Illinois, and Crown Point, Hessville and Dyer, Indiana.

Mr. Bielfeldt was a Republican, and served one term in the Legislature, the Thirtieth General Assembly of the State of Illinois, but finding it took too much of his time, he declined to serve another term. This was in 1877, and he was on the Committees on Roads, Bridges and License. He later served in many local Township positions.

Bielfeldt's wife gave birth to 10 children. Her death occurred August 14, 1895. Bielfeldt died on December 31, 1899 and is buried along with his family in Homewood Memorial Gardens Cemetery in Homewood, IL.

1897-1920: John S. Bielfeldt Brewing Company:

Upon J.S. Bielfeldt&rsquos death in 1899, the business was turned over to his children. Bottles bearing the name Bielfeldt Brewing Co. have been found in nearby Thorn Creek.

1902: Thorn Creek food, brewery partially damaged.


1902: The brewery was the site of the first whistle for the Volunteer Fire Department.


1904: The brewery was partially destroyed by tornado.

1910: A truck was acquired in 1910 for delivering beer.


1915: No longer needed, the brewery barn was bought and moved to the northeast corner of Williams and Ridge Road.

1918: The brewery was partially destroyed by fire. Carl Ebner, Sr., was added to the management of the Bielfeldt Brewery, and was made its president and manager on December 1, 1918. In the earlier part of his career, Ebner was Brewmaster at Jung Brewery, and later superintendent at Chicago Brewery and North Western Brewing Company. Carl Ebner added a modernly equipped bottling department to the general establishment of the Bielfeldt Brewery.

Officers of the Bielfeldt Brewery were president and manager Carl Ebner Sr., vice president John B. Bielfeldt, vice president & treasurer Paul J. Mueller Jr. and secretary Carl Ebner Jr.

National Prohibition of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine and distilled spirits) existed in the U.S. between 1920 and 1933. The Bielfeldt family sold the brewery at the onset of Prohibition, probably to Carl Ebner. Ebner is listed in the 1920 Illinois Census as a manufacturer of soda pop.

1922: The brewery was partially destroyed by fire. Some beer making continued in the 1920s despite Prohibition. Revenue agents came in with axes and smashed the vats. It was about this time that the Chicago crime syndicate took control. It was not uncommon to see the notorious Prohibition beer runner and gangster, Joseph &ldquoPolack Joe&rdquo Soltis, aka &ldquoPublic Enemy Number 9,&rdquo roll up in a black sedan to check on his bootlegging operation. Trucks would pick up the beer during the night for deliveries to Chicago&rsquos speakeasy customers.

Roadhouses (Dutch&rsquos Place, Blue Lantern, Rose Bowl, Red Lantern) were built east of Thornton on Ridge Road. They were disreputable and were raided frequently by federal officers due to suspicions of violating the 18th amendment.

1933-1936: Thornton Brewing Company:

When Prohibition ended in 1933, it was reported that installation of new brewing equipment had begun in the old brewery. Owner John M. Kubina stated that although former &ldquoBeer Baron of the South Side&rdquo Joe Soltis wanted to own a piece of the brewery he was denied. President and treasurer was John M. Kubina, along with a partner named Henry Detmer. Vice president was Edward B. Kenny, secretary R.W. Bielfeldt and brewmaster was Andrew Marra. Chief engineer was G. Swanson and they had an annual capacity of 25,000 barrels of old Thornton Special beer.

By October 1936 Thornton Brewing Co. filed for bankruptcy listing debts of $20,000. An auction of the property was held in December of 1936, with the two leading bidders being Jacob Silver and Dominick Frederick. Offers went as high as $8100, plus the amount necessary to pay the creditors. Joe Soltis, one-time beer runner of Prohibition days, warned Frederick that if he persisted in his bidding there wouldn&rsquot be any brewery left. Frederick withdrew his bid. Bankruptcy Court Referee Wallace Streeter had Soltis cited for contempt and the brewery property went to Frederick.

1937-1940: Illinois Brewing Company:

In 1937, Dominick Frederick and his brothers joined Mr. J. Capodice to incorporate the Illinois Brewing Company in Thornton, Illinois. Among their many brands were &ldquoOld Fashion&rdquo Lager Beer, Pennant, Queensville, Export Pale and Muenchener Bohemian Beer. In mid 1940, the brewery contracted with Crown Cork and Seal to produce J spout cans of Pilsner and Frederick&rsquos beer. Later that year, the company name was officially changed to Frederick&rsquos Brewing Co.

1940-1948: Frederick&rsquos Brewing Company:

Frederick&rsquos Brewing was a partnership of James, Frank, Joseph and Dominick Frederick. Brewmaster was Henry Scholl and assistant brewer Ernest Buehler. They operated two bottling lines and had a 75,000 barrel capacity and manufactured Frederick&rsquos Four Crown Special Beer. The beer was shipped by railroad car to army camps throughout the U.S. Boys from Thornton were always surprised to get beer from home. The empty bottles would be shipped back to Thornton to be refilled. Over $400,000 was spent to modernize the one-time log cabin. In the late 1940&rsquos, the brewery employed approximately 65 men but Frederick&rsquos Brewing went bankrupt.

1948-1950: McAvoy Brewing Company:

McAvoy Brewing was originally located on Brewers Row in Chicago but it did not survive Prohibition. The Frederick Brothers acquired the name in 1948. They brewed McAvoy Malt Marrow, American Club Pilsner Beer, and Van Nestor. McAvoy had a 100,000 barrel capacity. The Fredericks were apparently poor businessmen and the brewery again filed for bankruptcy in 1943 but remained in operation until 1949 when they went bankrupt from race track gambling debts.

1951-1957 White Bear Brewing Co., Inc.:

In 1951, the brewery was sold to Ildefonsas &ldquoJoe&rdquo Sadauskas, an immigrant from Lithuania who was sponsored by Thornton families after the war. The first stock certificate for 200 shares was issued Nov. 8, 1951. Sadauskus produced White Bear Beer from a Lithuanian recipe. It was not very popular with the people of the town.

Sadauskas advertised in Lithuanian newspapers in Chicago. He made his own barrels in a small cooper shop attached to the brewery complex.

In 1957, Sadauskas allegedly refused to pay the crime syndicate for protection and they tried to run him out of business. It was said that they came over and dumped about 140,000 gallons of beer from bottles and kegs into the creek. Other state that he just hadn't paid his taxes. At that point Sadauskas and partner Anthony Stakanas brought in small industrial companies. It was called Thornton Industrial Complex. Beer was never again brewed on the site.

1970s: After his partner died, Sadauskas sold the brewery to a syndicated group. Ed Huelat was one of three owners.

1977: Brewery gutted by fire. Owners were Frank Halagiere of Dolton, Robert Ried of Dolton, and Joseph Genovese of Riverdale.

1980s: Building bought by Gierczyk Development Co.

1980s: Bambino&rsquos Hideaway Restaurant, owners Frank and Debbie Elton.

1980s: Two Dolton businessmen, Butch Sikora and Greg Cooper purchased the brewery from Gierczyk Development Company.

1990-92: Became restaurant/bar called The Brewery. It was shut down in August of 1992 in a raid by the Metropolitan Enforcement Group.

1993 : Reopened as Dan D Jac&rsquos.

1997: Sold to Warren Salihar who named it Widow McCleary&rsquos Bar & Restaurant which had a fictitious history.

2000: Still called Widow McCleary&rsquos Bar & Restaurant, new owners.

2014: Steve Soltis, Andrew Howell and business partner Jake Weiss, the building&rsquos owner, got to work changing the former brewery into a distillery. It was called Soltis Family Spirits.

2017: Soltis Family Spirits open for business in December of 2017.

2018: Soltis Family Spirits was short-lived, with Steve Soltis pulling out of the business in early 2018. Andrew Howell, his brother Jon, and Jake Weiss continued distilling whiskey, rum and gin with plans to add additional brands of spirits to their product lineup. Their tasting room cocktail bar is called &ldquoThe Well,&rdquo after the natural spring water used for their products.


Family history through the alphabet – F is for Fecund Forebears

F is for Fecund Forebears

My tree has many branches because large numbers of offspring appear to have been the norm among the mining, fishing and farming families of North-East England and Scotland. Three of my grandparents are from large families. Grandmother Ellenor Turner was the seventh child of ten. Grandmother Margaret Jane Henderson was the third child of seven. Grandfather George Crackett was the eighth child of ten. (Shown in the banner of my blog).

Taking it back one generation further the big families include: Cracket 8, Parkinson 5, Carr 5, Henderson 7, Thornton 11. Similar trends can be seen in the earlier generations too with most of the couples having somewhere between 5 and 10 children.

F is for findmypast

F is also for findmypast which is one of the resources I find most useful for my genealogy research. I find their transcriptions among the most reliable, although Cracket has on occasion been twisted to Crackel. So far I have just used the UK site, but expect I am soon going to have to take a look at both Ireland and Australia. I have not managed to figure out yet whether having a subscription for one country gives any discount opportunities for the other countries.

If you would like to know more about this alphabet challenge take a look at Family History through the Alphabet.


Vaata videot: Henry Thornton (September 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Scott

    Soovitan teil külastada saiti, millel on selle küsimuse kohta palju teavet.

  2. Grojin

    Where there is only against the authority

  3. Mulkree

    Nüüd on kõik selgeks saanud, suured tänud abi eest selles küsimuses.

  4. Cliff

    Good business!

  5. Ahote

    See lihtsalt võrreldamatu sõnum)

  6. Qays

    Well, well, it is not necessary so to speak.



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